Dynamic Response of the Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars

Goddard's DREAM2 Center for Space Environments

DREAM2 incorporates over 30 science investigators from over 10 academic Institutions to study the space environment at exploration targets. DREAM2 is:

  • A theory, modeling, data analysis research team examining the space environment at airless bodies
  • Answering "How does the space environment affect volatiles, exospheres, plasmas, surface micro-structure, and visiting human systems at any exposed rocky body?"
  • Emphasizing the dynamic solar storms and human interactions at airless bodies.
  • A modeling center that maintains, advances, and integrates state-of-the-art neutral, plasma, radiation, and surface interaction models
  • Sponsored by Solar System Exploration Research Institute (SSERVI) Headquartered out of Ames Research Center Moffett Field CA, 94035



DREAM2 intern Keenan Hunt-Stone wins SPS award
November 14 2016

Howard Unjiversity logo

Howard University’s Keenan Hunt-Stone was one of a select few students to receive an award for his poster from the Society of Physics Students (SPS) at PhysCon 2016 held in San Francisco, CA, on November 2–6. His poster entitled “Constraining Lunar Surface Charging with Apollo CPLEE Observations” described research performed as a summer intern with mentor Tim Stubbs, with the research supported by the DREAM2’s intern program. Congratulations to Keenan!

For more details, see

DREAM2 makes a set of presentations at LEAG
November 7 2016


The annual meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) was held last week from 11/1-3 in Columbia Maryland. DREAM2 team members made a number of presentation including mission reports, new findings on the lunar regolith, and descriptions of exciting new upcoming missions like Resource Prospector and Lunar Ice Cube. The program and associated presentations can be found at


SSERVI Director Seminar: Dana Hurley presents an overview of Lunar Polar Volatiles
September 27 2016


Earlier this month, DREAM2 Co-I Dana Hurley presented a terrific review of the current state of knowledge of water at the lunar poles. The presentation was made at NASA HQ as part of the SSERVI Director’s Seminar series. Both a recording of the talk and the slide set can be found at


NewScientist magazine features DREAM2 study of Deep Dielectric Discharge at the Moon
September 20 2016

crater on Earth's moon

DREAM2 co-i Andrew Jordan is featured in a New Scientist article discussing the effect of radiation-induced deep dielectric discharge on the regolith at the cold lunar poles. He was the lead of a study team to understand the phenomena and their results were recently published in Icarus. For more details, on the NewScientist article, see


The Icarus research article is at


OSIRIS-REx launches to asteroid Bennu
September 9 2016

OSIRIS-REx launch

Congratulations to the O-REx team for a successful and spectacular evening launch (see http://spaceref.com/osiris-rex/osiris-rex-speeds-toward-asteroid-rendezvous.html). Congrats especially to our DREAM2 co-i and collaborating team members who are part of the O-REx adventure: John Marshall, Lucy Lim, and Joe Nuth. Congratulations also to members of our DREAM2 E/PO team Lora Bleacher and Andrea Jones who supported the terrific public communications efforts.

DREAM2 investigators examine super-charged lunar soils
September 7 2016

news image for September 7 news

DREAM2 co-I Mike Zimmerman at APL recently lead a simulation study of lunar surface dust regolith charging in plasma and in sunlight – showing the development of inhomogeneous grain charging and the formation of large E-fields between grains. Zimmerman’s research team included members of SSERVI’s DREAM2, IMPACT, and VOTICES teams. The paper was recently accepted and is now in press in Journal of Geophysical Research.

See http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JE005049/full

DREAM2 Intern Ana Newheart wins award in NASA’s Exploration Science Forum Student Poster Contest
August 02 2016

Ana Newhart with award

DREAM2 intern Ana Newheart won a travel award for her poster 'Apollo ALSEP/SIDE Observations of Stairstep Flux Profiles in the Terrestrial Magnetotail'. She works with mentor Michael Collier on analysis of data from the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) deployed and left on the Moon by Apollo astronauts. It remains a unique data set - paying terrific dividends to the next generation of explorers. Congratulations Ana!

See http://sservi.nasa.gov/articles/esf-2016-student-poster-award-winners/

DREAM2 prepares for the NASA Exploration Science Forum
July 14 2016

SSERVi Exploration Science Forum logo

DREAM2 team members are preparing for the annual Exploration Science Forum held at NASA Ames Research Center from July 20-22 and the preceding 3rd Conference on the Exploration of Phobos and Deimos on July 18-19. The programs for each are accessible from the ESF home page at http://nesf2016.arc.nasa.gov. DREAM2 has numerous presentations in both conferences.

DREAM2 Phobos study is May’s JGR-Planets Cover
June 22, 2016

JGR Cover image

DREAM2 Co-I Andrew Poppe at UC Berkeley led a team in examining plasma sputtering at Phobos, and modeling the resulting neutral gas emission and associated pick-up ions. Their recent paper can be found at


Key figures showing the distribution of pick-up ions from the moon at Mars made the cover of Journal Geophysical Research- Planets. See


DREAM2 team has its SSERVI-Central Site Visit
May 11, 2016

DREAM2 team

On May 3, the DREAM2 team had a site visit from the SSERVI Director, Dr. Yvonne Pendleton, and included key members of the other 8 SSERVI teams. At the site visit, the DREAM2 theme core leads presented the latest research and there were special talks on the recent Phobos environment studies, radiation dose effect calculations, CCMC modeling work, and astronaut-regolith first contact models.

DREAM2 & LRO research gives new insights into how the Moon got 'inked'
May 6, 2016


A powerful combination of observations and computer simulations is giving new clues to how the moon got its mysterious "tattoos" -- swirling patterns of light and dark found at over a hundred locations across the lunar surface.

For more information see:

DREAM2 Team Members at Upcoming Public Outreach Events
April 18, 2016

DREAM2 team members will be on hand at Earth Day festivities at Union Station in DC on April 20-21 from 9:30am-5:00pm to talk with the public about how NASA scientists are exploring and studying Earth’s neighborhood (http://www.earthday.org/campaigns/education/earth-day-union-station/). Team members will also share information about the Moon and other objects in our solar system at the annual Planet Walk on the Baltimore to Annapolis Trail on May 7th from 10:00am-2:30pm (http://www.friendsofaatrails.org/planet_walk.htm). The public is invited to attend both of these free events!

DREAM2Explore Teacher Professional Development Workshop– Registration Now Open!
February 26, 2016

July 11–15
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

DREAM2 is hosting a free workshop for grade 6–9 science teachers. Participants will learn how our understanding of the Moon, asteroids, and the moons of Mars is growing and changing with new data and models from current and recent planetary missions and the work of the DREAM2 team. Teachers will meet with NASA scientists that study the dynamic environments surrounding these rocky objects. All pre-service and in-service grade 6–9 science teachers are encouraged to apply! More information about the workshop and a link to the applications are available here:


DREAM2 study featured on the cover of JGR
February 11, 2016

Stunning visuals, showing a reflected ion fountain from the anomaly, graced the June 2015 journal cover

Results from a study led by DREAM2 postdoc Shahab Fatemi at UC Berkeley were published in Journal of Geophysical Research – Space Physics. The team modeled the solar wind plasma interaction with the Moons’ Gerasimovich magnetic anomaly using a state-of-the-art plasma simulation. The stunning visuals, showing a reflected ion fountain from the anomaly, graced the June 2015 journal cover. Congratulations to Shahab and his team!

The paper can be downloaded at:

DREAM2 Submits its Annual Report to SSERVI
February 10, 2016

image of a spacecraft near an asteroid

DREAM2’s Program Year 2 produced a set of terrific new results on topics like deep dielectric discharge, roving in shadowed regions, the generation of a possible neutral gas torus from Phobos and more. The team also included an outstanding set of early career interns and students from our partnering institutions. Read all about it at


DREAM2 Co-I Hurley leads team in assessing Lunar Polar Volatiles
February 02, 2016

lunar crater

Based on a request by HEOMD leadership, DREAM2’s Dana Hurley led a team from SSERVI and the Friends of Lunar Volatiles in generating a white paper describing the existing observations of the polar volatile environment at the Moon. The white paper was submitted in mid-January of 2016 and can be found at


DREAM2 co-I Misra wins NASA Early Opportunity Program Award
January 20, 2016

Howard University logo

A new Howard University and UMBC program will provide an early career pathway for underrepresented minority and women STEM students. The effort will focus on exposing six selected Howard University freshmen to NASA-centric research in Astrophysics, Solar System Exploration, Heliophysics and Earth Sciences throughout their undergraduate tenure. The six Howard University students will be stationed full-time at Goddard (some are anticipated to become part of DREAM2) during the three summers they are funded by this project. Dr. Misra is the PI of this new effort.


DREAM2 Recruiting Trip To Howard University
December 2, 2015

Howard University logo

DREAM2 team members Lora Bleacher, Tim Stubbs, Bill Farrell and Howard University Professor Prabhakar Misra met with students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy to advertise NASA Summer Internships (see http://intern.nasa.gov). After meeting with the students, they presented a seminar on 'Solar wind and its effect on exposed surfaces at the Moon and other airless bodies' at the weekly Department seminar series.

DREAM2’s Lora Bleacher wins a Robert H. Goddard Award
November 16, 2015

Lora Bleacher

DREAM2 E/PO lead Lora Bleacher was a recent recipient of a 2015 Robert H. Goddard award for exceptional achievement for outreach. Lora has been leading the DREAM and DREAM2 education and communication efforts since 2008. She has lead our Lunar Extreme Workshops featuring high school student participation from around the country and is now leading DREAM2 undergraduate intern activity and DREAM2Explore teacher workshops. Congratulations!

DREAM2 co-I Prabhakar Misra elected a Fellow of the APS
October 14, 2015

Prabhakar Misra

We are very pleased to announce that our DREAM2 co-i and dear colleague Prof. Prabhakar Misra at Howard U. was just recently elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS). Congratulations!

See: http://www.aps.org/programs/honors/fellowships/archive-all.cfm.

DREAM2 Scientists to further develop a lunar hydrogen exosphere CubeSat mission
September 23, 2015

DREAM2's Mike Collier led a multi-institutional team including key expert partners from University of Iowa, Morehead State University, JPL, and George Washington University on the Hydrogen Albedo Lunar Orbiter (HALO) CubeSat mission concept. The concept was recently awarded development funding under NASA's SIMPLEx program. More details regarding HALO and other Cubesat missions funded under SIMPLEx can be found at:


SSERVI-Central website: The Need for Conductive Space Suits
September 14, 2015

DREAM2 studies are featured in a SSERVI-central web article on the need for conducting space suits. The DREAM2 team studies suggest a walking astronaut and moving rover are better grounded (in an electrical sense) to the plasma than to the regolith, and increasing conductivity of the space suit ensures a good current flow - a good electrical connection - from the plasma to the roving object.
See http://sservi.nasa.gov/articles/the-need-for-conductive-space-suits/.

DREAM2 Interns win the John Mather Nobel Scholars AwardAugust 04, 2015

DREAM2 interns Anastasia Newheart of St. Mary’s College and Keenan Hunt-Stone of Howard University were each awarded the 2015 John Mather Nobel Scholars award for their science work during their summer internship. Congratulations!
See https://www.spacegrant.org/mather.

All the DREAM2 interns have been on the frontiers of space environmental science studies and will give their summer ending presentations on Thursday August 6 2015 at 1:00 pm, GSFC bldg. 34 room W305.

DREAM2’s Heidi Fuqua wins Outstanding Student Poster Award at ESFJuly 28, 2015

UCB Graduate Student and DREAM2 team member Heidi Fuqua won the Outstanding Poster presentation at the Exploration Science Forum. The poster was entitled ‘Isolating electromagnetic induction from the lunar interior measured with ARTEMIS’. Heidi’s advisor is Prof. Imke dePater and she did this latest work in collaboration with Greg Delory and Shahab Fatemi. Congratulations!

DREAM2 prepares for the SSERVI Exploration Science ForumJuly 14, 2015

NASA Exploration Science Forum

Next week, DREAM2 team scientist will be participating in the SSERVI Exploration Science Forum held at NASA Ames Research Center. DREAM2 scientists are leading over 15 presentations, and are chairing numerous sessions.

See the agenda at: http://nesf2015.arc.nasa.gov/agenda

DREAM2Explore Educator WorkshopJune 22, 2015

The DREAM2 Team extends a warm welcome to the 25 teachers who will be joining us at Goddard from June 22-26 for the DREAM2Explore Workshop! This educator professional development workshop will focus on how our understanding of the Moon, asteroids, and the moons of Mars is growing and changing with new data from current and recent missions and modeling efforts led by the DREAM2 team. We'll also talk about NASA's plans for exploring asteroids in preparation for a human journey to Mars. We look forward to working with you this week!

'Friends of Lunar Volatiles' Special Issue in Icarus is now releasedMay 27, 2015

Icarus magazine cover

A dedicated issue on the lunar volatile environment is now published in Icarus. DREAM2 co-I Dana Hurley was one of the editors. The special issue includes 18 papers on the latest studies of volatiles at the Moon, with applications to asteroids. See:

NewScientist article features LADEE dust observationsApril 28, 2015

The moon against a black background

DREAM2 scientists describe LADEE results on an unexpected lunar tail – of nanograins.


DREAM2 Co-I is part of Lunar IceCube mission for EM-1 Launch                        April 7, 2015

NASA has selected a lunar surface volatile cubesat mission called 'IceCube' lead by Morehead State University as one of HEOMD's NextSTEP program partnerships. The cubesat spacecraft will be launched to the Moon as part of the EM-1 mission onboard the SLS heavy-lift launch vehicle and will be subsequently deployed for lunar capture. DREAM2 Co-I Pamela Clark is a science lead and the mission with fly a GSFC-built IR system for identifying surface volatile content.


DREAM2 Program Year 1 Annual Report                                                        Feb 26, 2015

The DREAM2 team report outlining the team's science and communication activity in program Year 1 is found here (in PDF). This report was sent to SSERVI-Central and to HQ.

Opportunities for DREAM2 Summer Internships at NASA Goddard                        Jan 23, 2015

Internship opportunities are available for undergraduate students to work with DREAM2 scientists at NASA Goddard. Research projects include modeling lunar surface material defects and hydrogen implantation, laboratory research into lunar chemistry, designing deep space Cubesat mission concepts, and using Apollo data to characterize the lunar environment. Applications are due by March 1, 2015. Internships run for 10 weeks, beginning in early June. Use the keyword "dream" to search for DREAM2 opportunities via the following link:


Recent DREAM2 results presented at SSERVI Director's Seminar                        Jan 21, 2015

An overview of DREAM2 results was recently presented at NASA Headquarters by DREAM2 PI Bill Farrell. Examples of DREAM2's science and exploration integration were shown, including recent work by the team on plasma-related differential charging of human systems at the Moon and asteroids, interaction of an outgassing spacecraft to a nearby small airless body, and allowable astronaut days in the space radiation environment.

To get a copy of the viewgraphs or watch a replay of the talk, see

DREAM2 Intern Opportunities at UC Berkeley                                                Jan 8, 2015

DREAM2 academic partner University of California at Berkeley has undergraduate intern opportunities to work on DREAM2 space environment projects at the Berkeley location. Application deadline is 2/15. For more information, contact Andrew Poppe (poppe@ssl.berkeley.edu) and see


DREAM2 Scientist sees effect of meteor showers in Mercury's Exosphere            Dec 12, 2014

DREAM2's Rosemary Killen and colleague Joe Hahn reports on a periodic surge of calcium atoms in the exosphere of Mercury as tracing back to impacts by meteor streams possibly associated with comet Encke. The press release is found at:


and the accepted science paper in Incarus is at:

DREAM2 Scientist Hurley: 'Women Count'                                        Nov 17, 2014

DREAM2 scientist Dana Hurley presents a thoughtful essay on the selection and advancement of women in science published in AGU's journal, EOS. See


DREAM2 Featured in Colloquium at Howard University                        Nov 5, 2014

Bill Farrell (DREAM2 PI) presented an overview of DREAM2.s modeling and research efforts to students and faculty in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Howard University on October 29. Lora Bleacher (Education Lead) also presented opportunities for students to get involved in DREAM2 research via undergraduate internships and outreach. The abstract and presentation can be found at http://physics1.howard.edu/news/news_seminars14.html.

2014 DREAM News