Dynamic Response of the Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars

Goddard's DREAM2 Center for Space Environments

DREAM2 incorporates over 30 science investigators from over 10 academic Institutions to study the space environment at exploration targets. DREAM2 is:

  • A theory, modeling, data analysis research team examining the space environment at airless bodies
  • Answering "How does the space environment affect volatiles, exospheres, plasmas, surface micro-structure, and visiting human systems at any exposed rocky body?"
  • Emphasizing the dynamic solar storms and human interactions at airless bodies.
  • A modeling center that maintains, advances, and integrates state-of-the-art neutral, plasma, radiation, and surface interaction models
  • Sponsored by Solar System Exploration Research Institute (SSERVI) Headquartered out of Ames Research Center Moffett Field CA, 94035



DREAM2 team meets for its annual meeting
May 01 2018

Members of the DREAM2 team stting around several tables in a large room.

The DREAM2 team met for its annual meeting at the Greenbelt Marriott last week on 4/25 and 26. Team members presented their exciting new research and the team made plans for future science and exploration opportunities. At the team meeting, there was a large representation of the next generation: Post-docs and early career team members who will be part of the next exciting phase of lunar science – very encouraging!

DREAM2 scientist Hurley discusses lunar surface missions
March 13 2018

image of an astronaut standing next to the luar lander on the moon

A recent Nature news article discussing NASA’s lunar surface mission approach featured interviews with a number of our outstanding science colleagues, including DREAM2’s Dana Hurley. See


DREAM2 submits its Annual Report
February 20 2018

Anuual report cover

Earlier this month, DREAM2 submitted its annual report to SSERVI-central detailing the terrific activities occurring in the last program year. This last year featured new work such as modeling the plasma environment about 16 Psyche, new models of exosphere gas escape, models of the possible deep dielectric discharge effects as Mars’ moons, and lab work on the hydroxylation of the Moon, just to name a few of topics. The report can be found at:


The 'Super Blue Blood' Moon Explained
January 31 2018

Image of the Super Blue Blood Moon

DREAM2 Co-I Andrew Poppe provides a terrific description of the recent lunar eclipse called the 'super blue blood' Moon. See his timely KRON TV interview that explains this relatively rare event at:


Catalyst and Reaction in CHEM
January 25 2018

Catalyst and Reaction in CHEM

Multiple SSERVI teams recently submitted to the 'Catalyst' section of the journal CHEM. CHEM's Catalyst approach is to find a new topic and have a discussion about it. The original article defining the issue is called a 'Catalyst' and the added comments to the article are called 'Reactions'. In this case, Thom Orlando (PI REVEALS) wrote the original Catalyst article about REVEALS. Reactions are from DREAM2's Farrell and ESA's Bernard Foing. See:


Lunar Science for Landed Missions Workshop
January 11 2018

Lunar Science for Landed Missions Workshop logo

The lunar community, including DREAM2 team members, is meeting at NASA Ames Research Center on 1/10 and 1/11 to discuss science-driven landing targets for the Moon.

For more information, see https://lunar-landing.arc.nasa.gov

To get a flavor for the presentations, the abstracts can be accessed via

The Magneto-plasma Environment at 16 Psyche
December 12 2017

palsma flow around asteroid 16 Psyche

DREAM2 Co-investigators Shahab Fatemi and Andrew Poppe modeled the possible solar wind flow and electromagnetic environment in the vicinity of the metal-rich asteroid 16 Psyche. They include the effects of a possible large-scale magnetic field and high body conductivity on the plasma flow. The work provides preliminary predictions for magnetometer observations during the Psyche Discovery mission. The paper is accepted in GRL and can be found at:


DREAM2’s Rosemary Killen wins Robert H. Goddard Award
October 25 2017

Rosemary Killen

We congratulate our DREAM2 Deputy PI Rosemary Killen who was recently named a Robert H. Goddard Award recipient for her outstanding achievements in science. Rosemary is an internationally recognized leader in the exosphere and surface interaction community, continuing to make significant advances in our understanding of the exospheres at airless bodies, especially both Mercury and the Moon. Congratulations!

Solar eruptions could electrify Phobos
October 23 2017

Phobos - moon of Mars

Powerful solar eruptions could electrically charge areas of the Martian moon Phobos to hundreds of volts, presenting a complex electrical environment that could possibly affect sensitive electronics carried by future robotic explorers, according to a new NASA DREAM2 study. The study also considered electrical charges that could develop as astronauts transit the surface on potential human missions to Phobos.

For more details, see:


The original research article is found at

DREAM2 Welcomes New Team Members
October 05 2017

The team is thrilled to bring onboard two new post-doc team members

Parvathy Prem joins DREAM2 in an APL Post-Doctorial position in support of DREAM2 exosphere and surface studies. A University of Texas graduate, she has modeled cometary delivery of water and the resulting transient atmosphere at the Moon.

Orenthal Tucker also joins the team in a NASA Post-Doctoral position at GSFC in support of DREAM2 exosphere and surface interaction studies. A University of Virginia graduate, he has a number of works on planetary exospheres, including that at our Moon, Titan, Pluto, and the Enceladus plume.

Welcome to the team!

The 2017 Solar Eclipse
September 01 2017

August 2017 solar eclipse

DREAM2 team members were all over the country observing the eclipse on 21 August 2017! Most of the SSERVI glasses provided to DREAM2 were distributed between the Citadel and the RiverDogs baseball stadium in Charleston, SC where DREAM2 E/PO lead Lora Bleacher assisted in hosting formal NASA events. Team members were located at strategic locations along the path of totality from Oregon to Idaho to the Carolinas. Team members also hosted events, both NASA-sponsored and informally with family and friends. It was a terrific experience shared by millions who gazed in the same direction both Moonward and Sunward that day!

DREAM2 interns present their summer research
August 10 2017

DREAM2 2017 summer interns

After a summer of work, our DREAM2 interns presented their research results yesterday on topics as varied as quantifying the dust in the Enceladus plume, supporting public outreach for the upcoming 21 August eclipse, examining landed plasma measurements, and observing & modeling the exosphere of the Moon. We congratulate all the interns on their terrific work and wish them the very best for the upcoming school year.

DREAM2 team members active in SSERVI Forum
July 24 2017

Exploration forum 2017 logo

DREAM2 investigators gave over a dozen presentations, chaired sessions, and were involved in focus groups at last week’s SSERVI Exploration Science Forum. The program, which also links to video replay of each talk, can be found at

Session at the 2017 AGU will feature Radiation and Humans to Space
June 26 2017

Human access to space is expanding in a new realm of deep space exploration, space tourism and society's increasing reliance on rapid and reliable aviation. We invite abstracts on research including the origin of SEPs from coronal mass ejections, propagation of events through the solar system during the anomalously weak solar cycle 24 and important examples of radiation interactions for Earth, other planets and airless bodies such as the Moon. The AGU fall meeting is from 11-15 December in New Orleans.

More details about the session can be found at https://ssed.gsfc.nasa.gov/dream/docs/sessionAt2017AGU.pdf.

DREAM2 Interns for Summer 2017
June 08 2017

Nine summer interns arrived this week at Goddard in support of DREAM2 scientists. The interns will work on a number of exciting projects like Apollo surface experiment observations, exospheric research, dust-plasma studies, education & outreach applications, and radiation studies. The interns will present their work in a set of posters and presentations later in the summer. Welcome!

DREAM2 team gets an Argon radiation beam line in place
May 05 2017

Argon radiation beam line

DREAM2 team member Mark Loeffler is leading a team in the Goddard Radiation Facility to get a 1 MeV Ar+ beam line in place for irradiation of minerals, simulants, and eventually lunar samples. The irradiation is anticipated to create near-surface crystal defects, which may further enhance trapping of D using a lower energy deuterium beam. A number of exciting new studies are anticipated with this two-beam experimental set-up.

New surprises found in Apollo-era data set
March 17 2017

Apollo-era image of part of the moon

Using measurements from the Apollo 14 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE), a DREAM2 team of investigators lead by Mike Collier found evidence for the formation of unusual non-monotonic surface potentials that trap photo-ions and reflect electrons. These potentials occurred when the Moon was located in the geomagnetic tail. The potentials were actually discovered a few years previously from orbiting spacecraft well-above the lunar surface. Now their signature is found in a re-examination of the rich Apollo-era surface package. Collier also enlisted the assistance of Intern Ana Newheart in searching and analyzing the exciting find – further ensuring the legacy of Apollo to the next generation of scientists.

The paper can be found at:

DREAM2 Now Accepting Applications for the DREAM2Explore Workshop
March 01 2017

Grade 6-9 educators are encouraged to apply for the free DREAM2Explore Educator Professional Development Workshop, which will take place at NASA Goddard from June 26-30, 2017. For more details, and to apply, visit: http://ssed.gsfc.nasa.gov/dream/DREAM/DREAM2Explore.html

DREAM2 Submits its Program Year 3 Annual Report
February 17 2017

moon with satellite

In late January, the DREAM2 team submitted its yearly report to SSERVI-Central. The report outlines the terrific work that was done in the 3rd program year – including the publication of 22 new DREAM2-funded papers, the intramural study of the space environment at Phobos, a vibrant intern program with our partners at Howard University, and highly-rated DREAM2Explore educator workshops.

The report can be downloaded at http://ssed.gsfc.nasa.gov/dream/docs/DREAM2_Annual_Report_Program_Year.012317b.pdf

New DREAM2 study finds solar storms could create discharges at the Moon’s poles
January 9 2017

image of moon indicating areas of anomalous charge build up

A team led by University of New Hampshire's Andrew Jordan has been examining the possibility of occurrence of deep dielectric discharge (DDD) in lunar polar regions from energetic particles associated with solar storms. They found that the cold lunar regolith at the lunar poles behaves as an insulator to allow anomalous charge build up during energetic particle events. A press release on their findings is found at

2016 DREAM News